Tumors of the central nervous system encompasses a large diversity of pathological diagnoses. They are divided into 17 categories. In each category several subtypes are recorded.
The recent WHO classification of CNS tumors (2016) has included molecular data for the diagnosis of several categories such as diffuse astrocytic and oligodendroglial tumors, ependymal tumors or embryonal tumors as major examples.
Pathologists are responsible for the histomolecular diagnoses. This requires to integrate pathological and molecular data.
Diagnosis of CNS tumors requires strong expertise including pathological expertise and an up-to date knowledge of molecular data. Because tumors of the CNS are quite rare but highly diverse it is difficult to be aware of all the literature in this field. Moreover only pathologists that analyze a large number of cases can reach sufficient expertise.
Networks have been created in France to centrally review routine cases (RENOCLIP network). Networks have also been created in Europe for retrospective pathological analysis of large series of cases for translational research (SIOP, EORTC). Therefore it is of utmost importance that pathologists that did not have sufficient expertise in the field send cases for central review by expert pathologists.
The good diagnosis associated with theranostic markers will help clinicians to treat patients.